Kakao

KakaoKakao war einst Opfer an die Götter und stimulierendes Getränk für den Adel.

In der Kolonialpolitik und im Handel spielte er eine zentrale Rolle.

Nicht zuletzt ist Kakao ein wunderbares Genussmittel und mit seinen heilenden Wirkstoffen ein echter Jungbrunnen.

Dieses Buch erzählt seine Geschichte und bietet eine Vielzahl großartiger Rezepte, von denen viele aus der Versuchsküche der Autorin stammen.

 

Wer sich in das Thema vertiefen möchte, findet hier eine

Auswahl an weiterführender Literatur

Österreichisches Lebensmittelbuch, IV. Auflage, Codexkapitel B 15: Kakao- und Schokoladeerzeugnisse, Lebensmittel mit Kakaoerzeugnissen oder Schokoladen. Veröffentlicht mit Erlass BMG-75210/0014-II/B/13/2010 vom 23.12.2010.

Statistiken der Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations www.fao.org/faostat/

Amponsah, S K et al. In Vitro Activity of Cocoa Powder Extracts on Some Biomarkers Implicated in P. falciparum Malaria Pathogenesis. J Pharma Nut Sci 5.1 (2015): 38-42.

Anunciato T P et al. Carotenoids and Polyphenols in Nutricosmetics, Nutraceuticals, and Cosmeceuticals. J Cosmet Derm 11.1 (2012): 51-54.

Araujo, Q R De et al. Cocoa and Human Health: From Head to Foot—A Review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 56.1 (2016): 1-12.

Aremu, C Y et al. Nutrient and Antinutrient Profiles of Raw and Fermented Cocoa Beans. Plant Foods Human Nutr (Formerly Qualitas Plantarum) 48.3 (1995): 217-223.

Baba, S et al. Bioavailability of (-)-epicatechin Upon Intake of Chocolate and Cocoa in Human Volunteers. Free Radical Res 33.5 (2000): 635-641.

Badiano, J. Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis. 1552. Codex Badianus

Báez, O L et al. Materiales de cacao de interés farmacológico (Theobroma cacao L.). ESPACIO I+D 5.11 (2016): 84-103.

Bernaert, H et al. Industrial treatment of cocoa in chocolate production: health implications. Chocolate and Health. Springer Milan, 2012. 17-31.

Blowfield.M. Ethical Supply Chains in the Cocoa, Coffee and Tea Industries. Greener Management International No. 43, Transforming International Product Chains into Channels of Sustainable Production: The Imperative of Sustainable Chain Management (Autumn 2003): 15-24 .

Brillat-Savarin, J A. Physiologie du goût, ou méditations de gastronomie transcendante. Sautelet, 1825. (Erstausgabe anonym).

Buijsse, B et al. Cocoa Intake, Blood Pressure, and Cardiovascular Mortality: The Zutphen Elderly Study. Arch Intern Med 166.4 (2006): 411-417.

Burleigh, R. Chocolate: Riches from the rainforest. Abrams Publishers, 2002.

Chauveau, J-P. Cocoa as Innovation: African Initiatives, Local Contexts and Agro-Ecological Conditions in the History of Cocoa Cultivation in West African Forest Lands (c. 1850-c. 1950). Paideuma: Mitteilungen zur Kulturkunde 43 (1997): 121-142.

Clark, A et al. Public and Private Institutional Responses to Advocacy Attacks: The Case of the Global Cocoa Industry and Child Labour Abuse.” 2011 Annual Meeting, July 24-26, 2011, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. No. 104726. Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, 2011.

Coe S et al. The True History of Chocolate. Thames & Hudson, 2000.

Cortés, H. Letters from Mexico. Translated by A Pagden. Yale University Press, 2001.

Crown, L. Pre-hispanic Use of Cocoa. Chocolate in Health and Nutrition (2012): 1.

Dahiya, S et al. Lead, Cadmium and Nickel in Chocolates and Candies from Suburban Areas of Mumbai, India. J Food Compos Analysis 18.6 (2005): 517-522.

Dillinger, T L et al. Food of the Gods: Cure for Humanity? A cultural History of the Medicinal and Ritual Use of Chocolate. J Nutr 130.8 (2000): 2057S-2072S.

Ding, E L et al. Chocolate and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: a Systematic Review. Nutr Metab 1.3 (2006): 84-96.

Drake, R et al. Effects of Chocolate Consumption on Enhancing Cognitive Performance. Appetite 49.1 (2007): 288.

Dreiss, M L et al. Chocolate: Pathway to the Gods. University of Arizona Press, 2008.

d´El-Rei, J et al. Characterization of Hypertensive Patients with Improved Endothelial Function after Dark Chocolate Consumption. Int J Hypertens (2013): 1-6.

Fincke, H. Handbuch der Kakaoerzeugnisse. Springer-Verlag, 2013.

Fisher, N DL et al. Aging and Vascular Responses to Flavanol-Rich Cocoa. J Hypertens 24.8 (2006): 1575-1580.

Fowler, M S et al. Cocoa Beans: From Tree to Factory. Beckett’s Industrial Chocolate Manufacture and Use (2017): 9-49.

Fraga, CGet al. Cocoa Flavanols: Effects on Vascular Nitric Oxide and Blood Pressure. J Clin Biochem Nutr 48.1 (2011):63-67. 

Golomb, B A et al. Association between more frequent chocolate consumption and lower body mass index. Arch Intern Med 172.6 (2012): 519-521.

Grivetti, L & H-Y Shapiro (Hrsg.). Chocolate: History, Culture, and Heritage. John Wiley & Sons, 2011.

Guerra, F. Maya Medicine. Med Hist 8.1. (1964): 31-43.

Guerra, F. Aztec Medicine. Medical History 10.4 (1966): 315-338.

Hamed, M S et al. Dark Chocolate Effect on Platelet Activity, C-Reactive Protein and Lipid Profile: A Pilot Study. South Med J 101.12 (2008): 1203-1208.

Heiss, C et al. Vascular Effects of Cocoa Rich in Flavan-3-ols. Jama 290.8 (2003): 1030-1031.

Henderson, J S et al. Chemical and Archaeological Evidence for the Earliest Cacao Beverages. Proc Nat Acad Sci 104.48 (2007): 18937-18940.

Herraiz, T. Tetrahydro-β-carbolines, Potential Neuroactive Alkaloids, in Chocolate and Cocoa. J Agric Food Chem 48.10 (2000): 4900-4904.

Holst, B et al. Nutrients and Phytochemicals: From Bioavailability to Bioefficacy Beyond Antioxidants. Curr Opinion Biotech 19.2 (2008): 73-82.

Hopkins, A G. An Economic History of West Africa. 2007.

Hoskin, J C. Sensory Properties of Chocolate and Their Development. Am J Clin Nutr 60.6 (1994): 1068S-1070S.

Hull, E M et al. Dopamine and Serotonin: Influences on Male Sexual Behavior. Phys & Behav 83.2 (2004): 291-307.

Hurst, W J. Cacao Chemistry. Chocolate and Health. 2015. 56-66.

Hurst, W J. Chocolate as Medicine. J Agr Food Chem 63.45 (2015): 9899-9900.

Ishaq, S et al. Biomedical Importance of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao): Significance and Potential for the Maintenance of Human Health. Matrix Science Pharma (MSP) 1.1 (2017): 1-5.

Jahoda, M et al. Die Arbeitslosen von Marienthal: ein soziographischer Versuch über die Wirkungen langandauernder Arbeitslosigkeit. Mit einem Anhang zur Geschichte der Soziographie. Verlag für Demoskopie 1960.

Jang, S et al. Flavanol-Enriched Cocoa Powder Alters the Intestinal Microbiota, Tissue and Fluid Metabolite Profiles, and Intestinal Gene Expression in Pigs. J Nutrition 146.4 (2016): 673-680.

Janszky, I et al. Chocolate Consumption and Mortality Following a First Acute Myocardial Infarction: The Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program. J Intern Med 266.3 (2009): 248-257.

Jenkins, T A et al. Influence of Tryptophan and Serotonin on Mood and Cognition with a Possible Role of the Gut-brainAaxis. Nutrients 8.1 (2016): 56.

Kaufmann, T et al. The History of the Word for Cacao in Ancient Mesoamerica. Ancient Mesoamerica 18 (2007): 193-237.

Keen, C L. Chocolate: Food as Medicine/Medicine as Food. J Am Coll Nutr 20.sup5 (2001): 436S-439S.

Kerr, J. History of Chocolate. Field Museum, 2007.

Kessel, W M J van. Merchants, Missionaries & Migrants: 300 Years of Dutch-Ghanaian Relations. KIT Publishers, 2002.

Kilham, C. Psyche Delicacies: Coffee, Chocolate, Chiles, Kava, and Cannabis, and Why They’re Good for You. Rodale, 2001.

Kim, D-Y et al. Serotonin: A Mediator of the Brain-gut Connection. Am J Gastroent 95.10 (2000): 2698-2709.

Kim, J et al. Cocoa Phytochemicals: Recent Advances in Molecular Mechanisms on Health. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 54.11 (2014): 1458-1472.

Kufer, J et al. Cacao in Eastern Guatemala – A Sacred Tree with Ecological Significance. Environ Dev Sustain 8 (2006): 597-608.

Lamport, D et al. The Effect of Flavanol-rich Cocoa on Cerebral Perfusion in Healthy Older Adults During Conscious Resting State: A Placebo Controlled, Crossover, Acute Trial. Psychpharm 232.17 (2015): 3227-3234.

Latif, R. Chocolate/Cocoa and Human Health: A Review. Neth J Med 71.2 (2013): 63-68.

LeDoux, M S. Tetrahydroisoquinolines and Parkinson’s Disease. In: R F Pfeiffer et al (Hrsg.): Prakinsons´sDisease CRC Press, 2012: 91-108.

Lee, C K et al. Determination of Cadmium, Lead, Copper and Arsenic in Raw Cocoa, Semifinished and Finished Chocolate Products. Pertanika 8.2 (1985): 243-248.

Leiter J et al. Trinidad, Brazil and Ghana: Three Melting moments in the History of Cocoa. Journal of Rural Studies 20 (2014): 123-130.

Li, Z et al. Essential Roles of Enteric Neuronal Serotonin in Gastrointestinal Motility and the Development/Survival of Enteric Dopaminergic Neurons. J Neurosci 31.24 (2011): 8998-9009.

Lieberei R et al. Nutzpflanzenkunde. 7. Auflage, Thieme, 2007.

 

Lima, L JR, et al. Theobroma cacao L., ›The food of the Gods‹: Quality Determinants of Commercial Cocoa Beans, with Particular Reference to the Impact of Fermentation. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 51.8 (2011): 731-761.

 

Lin, X et al. Cocoa Flavanol Intake and Biomarkers for Cardiometabolic Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. J Nutr 146.11 (2016): 2325-2333.

Lippi, D. Chocolate and Medicine: Dangerous Liaisons? Nutrition 25 (2009). 1100-1103.

Lippi, D. Chocolate in History: Food, Medicine, Medi-Food. Nutrients 5 (2013): 1573-1584.

Mabberley, DJ. Mabberley´s Plant Book. 3. Auflage, Cambridge Universitiy Press, 2008.

Macht, M et al. Immediate Effects of Chocolate on Experimentally Induced Mood States. Appetite 49.3 (2007): 667-674.

Macready, A L et al. Flavonoids and Cognitive Function: A Review of Human Randomized Controlled Trial Studies and Recommendations for Future Studies. Genes & Nutrition 4.4 (2009): 227-242.

Magrone, T et al. Cocoa and Dark Chocolate Polyphenols: From Biology to Clinical Applications. Front Immunol 8 (2017): 677.

Mann, J J. Role of the Serotonergic System in the Pathogenesis of Major Depression and Suicidal Behavior. Neuropsychpharmacol 21.2 (1999): 99S-105S.

Mao, T K et al. Effect of Cocoa Flavanols and Their Related Oligomers on the Secretion of Interleukin-5 in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells. J Med Food 5.1 (2002): 17-22.

Marradón, B. Diálogo del uso de tobacco yde chocolate y otras bebidas. Sevilla 1618. Das einzig bekannte Exemplar befindet sic him Vatikan. Eine französische Übersetzung bietet: P S Dufour: Dialogue du Chocolat in Traitez nouveaux et curieux du café, du thé et du chocolat. Lyon 1685: 423-445.

Martin, S. Cacao in Ancient Maya Religion. In: Cameron L. McNeil (Hrsg.). Chocolate in Mesoamerica: A Cultural History of Caca, (2006): 154-183.

Massee, L A et al. The Acute and Sub-chronic Effects of Cocoa Flavanols on Mood, Cognitive and Cardiovascular Health in Young Healthy Adults: A Randomized, Controlled Trial. Front Pharmacol 6 (2015), Article 93: 1-14.

Medeiros, F. Characterisation of Hypertensive Patients with Improved Endothelial Function After Dark Chocolate Consumption. Int J Hypertens (2013): 1-7.

Mellor, D D et al. High‐cocoa Polyphenol‐rich Chocolate Improves HDL-cholesterol in Type 2 Diabetes Patients. Diab Med 27.11 (2010): 1318-1321.

Melzig, M F, et al. In Vitro Pharmacological Activity of the Tetrahydroisoquinoline Salsolinol Present in Products from Theobroma cacao L. Like Cocoa and Chocolate. J Ethnopharm 73.1 (2000): 153-159.

Michener, W et al. Pharmacological Versus Sensory Factors in the Satiation of Chocolate Craving. Phys & Behav 56.3 (1994): 419-422.

Millon, R F. When Money Grew on Trees. A Study of Cacao in Ancient Mesoamerica. Doctoral Dissertation. Department of Anthropology. Columbia University, 1955.

Minchen, L. Raw Cacao: Powerful Antioxidant and Disease Fighter. June 23, 2016.

Minifie, B. Chocolate, Cocoa and Confectionery: Science and Technology. Springer Science & Business Media, 2012.

Mounicou, S et al. Concentrations and Bioavailability of Cadmium and Lead in Cocoa Powder and Related Products. Food Add & Contamin 20.4 (2003): 343-352.

Monti, J M et al. The Roles of Dopamine and Serotonin, and of their Receptors, in Regulating Sleep and Waking. Prog Brain Res 172 (2008): 625-646.

Morris, K et al. Chocolate, Brain Metabolism, and Mood. Karger Gazette (2005): 5-7.

Myers, R D. Serotonin and Thermoregulation: Old and New Views. J Physiol 77.2-3 (1981): 505-513.

Nabavi, F et al. Anti-oxidative Polyphenolic Compounds of Cocoa. Curr Pharm Biotech 16.10 (2015): 891-901.

Nehlig, A. The Neuroprotective Effects of Cocoa Flavanol and its Influence on Cognitive Performance. Brit Journal Clin Pharm 75.3 (2013): 716-727.

Norton, M. Tasting Empire: Chocolate and the European Internalization of Mesoamerican Aesthetics. Am Hist Rev 111.3 (2006): 660-669.

O’Mahony, S M et al. Maternal Separation as a Model of Brain-gut Axis Dysfunction. Psychopharm 214.1 (2011): 71-88.

O´Neil M E. Ancient Maya Sculptures of Tikal. RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics 55/56 (2009): 119-134.

Othman, A et al. Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of Cocoa Beans. Food Chem 100.4 (2007): 1523-1530.

Owusu, S K. Identification of the Critical Points for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Contamination Along the Cocoa Processing and Storage Chain in Ghana. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, College of Engineering, Department of Chemical and Materials Eengineering. Diss. 2013.

Park, H‐J et al. Association of Obesity with Serum Leptin, Adiponectin, and Serotonin and Gut Microflora in Beagle Dogs. J Vet Internal Med 29.1 (2015): 43-50.

Paternotte, S et al. Chocolate in Some French Pharmaceutical or Medicinal Books from the XVIIth, XVIIIth and XIXth Centuries. Its Beneficent and Inconvenient, Proved or Imaginary Effects. Rev Hist Pharm 51.338 (2002): 197-210.

Pech, J. The Chocolate Therapist. Remedies for a World of Ailments. Traford 2005.

Powis, T. An Archaeological Investigation of the Origin of Cacao Drinking: The Ceramic Evidence from the Gulf Coast and the Pacific Coast of Mexico. FAMSI, 2007.

Preedy, V R et al. Chocolate in health and nutrition. Ed. Ronald Ross Watson. London, UK: Humana Press, 2013.

Pucciarelli, D L. Chocolate as Medicine. Chocolate: History, Culture, and Heritage (2008): 115-126.

Pucciarelli, D L et al. The Medicinal Use of Chocolate in Early North America. Molec Nutr & Food Res 52.10 (2008): 1215-1227.

Rankin, C W et al. Lead Contamination in Cocoa and Cocoa Products: Isotopic Evidence of Global Contamination. Envir Health Perspect 113.10 (2005): 1344.

Rasyid, H N et al. The Efficacy of Flavonoid Antioxidant from Chocolate Bean Extract: Prevention of Myocyte Damage Caused by Reperfusion Injury in Predominantly Anaerobic Sports. Malays Orth J 6.3 (2012): 3.

Rein, D et al. Chocolate: Modern Science Investigates an Ancient Medicine. Cocoa and Wine Polyphenols Modulate Platelet Activation and Function. J Nutr 130 (2000): 2120S-2126S.

Rendeiro, C et al. The Mechanisms of Action of Flavonoids in the Brain: Direct Versus Indirect Effects. Neurochem Int 89 (2015): 126-139.

Rose, N et al. Mood Food: Chocolate and Depressive Symptoms in a Cross-sectional Analysis. Arch Intern Med 170.8 (2010): 699-703.

Sahagún, B de. La Historia Universal de las Cosas de Nueva España. 1590. Codex Florentinus

Sansone, R et al. Cocoa Flavanol Intake Improves Endothelial function and Framingham Risk Score in Healthy Men and Women: A Randomised, Controlled, Double-masked Trial: The Flaviola Health Study. Brit J Nutr 114.8 (2015): 1246-1255.

Sarriá, B et al. Effects of Bioactive Constituents in Functional Cocoa Products on Cardiovascular Health in Humans. Food Chem 174 (2015): 214-218.

Scapagnini, G et al. Cocoa Bioactive Compounds: Significance and Potential for the Maintenance of Skin Health. Nutrients 6.8 (2014): 3202-3213.

Schrage, E J et al. The Cocoa Industry and Child Labour. Journal of Corporate Citizenship 18 (2005): 99-112.

Schramm, D D et al. Chocolate procyanidins decrease the leukotriene-prostacyclin ratio in humans and human aortic endothelial cells. Am J Clin Nutr 73.1 (2001): 36-40.

Serafini M et al. Functional Foods for Health: The Interrelated Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Role of Fruits, Vegetables, Herbs, Spices and Cocoa in Humans. Curr Pharm Design 22.44 (2016): 6701-6715.

Silva, N R. Chocolate Consumption and Effects on Serotonin Synthesis. Arch Intern Med 170.17 (2010): 1608-1609.

Smit, H J. Theobromine and the Pharmacology of Cocoa. Methylxanthines. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011. 201-234.

Spencer, J PE. Beyond Antioxidants: The Cellular and Molecular Interactions of Flavonoids and How these Underpin their Actions on the Brain. Proc Nutr Soc 69.2 (2010): 244-260.

Spencer, J PE. Flavonoids and Brain Health: Multiple Effects Underpinned by Common Mechanisms. Genes & Nutrition 4.4 (2009): 243-250.

Spencer, J PE et al. Decomposition of Cocoa Procyanidins in the Gastric Milieu. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 272.1 (2000): 236-241.

Squicciarini, M P et al. The Economics of Chocolate. Oxford University Press, 2016.

Steinberg, F M et al. Cocoa and Chocolate Flavonoids: Implications for Cardiovascular Health. J Am Dietetic Ass 103.2 (2003): 215-223.

Stephens J L. Incidents of Travel in Yucatan. New York: Harper& Brothers, 1843.

Stubbe, H. The Indian Nectar, or, a Discourse Concerning Cocolate: The Nature of the Cacao-nut and the Other Ingredients of that Composition is Examined and Stated According to the Judgment and Experience of Indian and Spanish Writers. JC for Andrew Crook, 1662.

Taubert, D et al. Effect of Cocoa and Tea Intake on Blood Pressure: A Meta-Analysis. Arch Int Med 167.7 (2007): 626-634.

Terrio, S J. Crafting the Culture and History of French Chocolate. University of California Press, 2000.

Tokede, O A. Effects of Cocoa Products/Dark Chocolate on Serum Lipids: A Meta-Analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr 65.8 (2011): 879.

Underwood, E. Trace Elements in Human and Animal Nutrition. Elsevier, 2012.

Vail, G. Cacao Use in Yucatán Among the Pre-hispanic Maya. In: Grivetti, L E and H-Y Shapiro (Hrsg.). Chocolate: History, Culture, and Heritage. John Wiley & Sons, 2009.

Vollmer, G. Über den Wechselkurs von Cacaobohnen und den Preis der Schokolade. Ein mexikanisches Problem. In: Böttcher/Hausberger (Hrsg.): Dinero y negocios en la historia de América Latina. Frankfurt/M. 2000, 59–84.

Wadsworth, J. Chocolate; or an Indian Drinke. London: JG for John Dakins, 1652. Erstausgabe: A Curious History of the Nature and Quality of Chocolate. London, 1640.

Williams, R J et al. Flavonoids, Cognition, and Dementia: Actions, Mechanisms, and Potential Therapeutic Utility for Alzheimer Disease. Free Rad Biol Med 52.1 (2012): 35-45.

Wilson, P K and W J Hurst, eds. Chocolate and Health: Chemistry, Nutrition and Therapy. Royal Society of Chemistry, 2015.

Wilson, P K. Chocolate in Science, Nutrition and Therapy: A Historical Perspective. (2015): 1-27.

Wollgast, J et al. Review on Polyphenols in Theobroma cacao: Changes in Composition During the Manufacture of Chocolate and Methodology for Identification and Quantification. Food Res Int 33.6 (2000): 423-447.

World Cocoa Foundation. Cocoa Market Update. 2014. (Access: www.WorldCocoa.org).

Ziegleder, G et al. Analysis of Cocoa Flavour Components and Flavour Precursors. An Nonalc Bev. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 1988. 321-393.

 

Hinterlasse eine Antwort